1. Original Paper published regarding the M H Systems Ballast water treatment system:
Ballast water treatment by De-oxygenation with elevated CO2 for a shipboard installation – a potentially affordable solution – by Mo Husain , Dr. Horst Felbeck, et.al Presented to 2nd International Ballast Water Treatment R&D Symposium. 21-23 July 2003, IMO, London
Abstract: The concept to combat Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) invasion resulting from ballast water discharge, described in this paper, is a technical extension of MH Systems’ American Underpressure System (AUPS). The AUPS utilises inert gas in its ullage space; the ballast water treatment method consists of bubbling the inert gas via a row of pipes (orifices at the bottom of the pipes) located at the bottom of the tank. The inert gas makes the ballast water hypoxic and hypercapnic “killing” the harmful organisms. (Please see test results in the paper).
2. SYSTEM DESIGN. M H Systems’ Ballast Water Treatment System Design on board R/V Melville – Oceanographic Research Vessel Operated by Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Under a contract from San Diego Unified Port District a study was completed:
Pdf. File “Initiate activities required to test ballast water by inert gas”. A (contract) design study of MHS ballast water treatment system